Lamant que jattendais - Lété de la chance (Harlequin Passions) (French Edition)
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Well Ek 1984 Jacques Derrida
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Aeve" iia,D been of grsu. The diecuBsicn of any topic that has to do with the drajsia of the late aeventeenth or the early eighteenth centuries must start with Moliere. This is true of the conic type of bourgeois as it is of other matters pertaining to the comedy cf Moliere i it is sme thing like forty years after his death before Le Sage cones forward with a type or bourgeois quite new, and even Turcaret acknowledges a shadowy an- cestor in Harpin of La Comtesse d ' Es carbagn aa.
And it is not until Destouches, well on in the twenties of the eighteenth century, that we find an author with sufficient originality to free himself en- tirely from the Jloliere tradition, and to abandon his point of view in regard to the bourgeois.
This may or may not have been conscious Imltationi at all events, it has been found convenient to treat the various types of bourgeois as though they were descendants from the prototypes to be found in Moliere, For the sake of brevity, too, I have found it convenient to adopt a kind of Moliere nomenclature, using such names as the M.
Jourdain type, the Harpagon type, the Arnolphe type, etc. Tliere is, so far as I can find, no monograph on this subject, though there has been much said, nat- urally, on the various cloaracters in articles dealing with the plays in which they occur. In these it is difficult to tell in just what stratum of society he intends to make his char- acters move.
Full text of "My memoirs"
In fact, it matters very little where they come fron, as the interest lies entirely in the intrigue, and not at all in the characters. It is only by a sort of process of elimination that we can list some of these personages in the middle class. We know they are not peasants nor nobles nor servants nor churchmen, and so put them down in the great class that erabraced those members of society that were none of these.
Unfortunately, a name in Mo- liere means little or nothing in determining social status. Bes R id le. JIIO ' These are Earhouille himself, and Gorgibus his father-in-law.
There is nothing whatever in either of them to assign them to any one clasK of society, except the process of elimination above referred to. He is credulous, avaricious, and amouroua, three characteristics, which Moliere will later use in three of his greatest bourgeois creations, but there is nothing in Anselme to show that any especial reference to the bourgeois was intended. Le Pep i t Aiaoureiuc 1C56 gives us another miser in Albert, and a conventional father in Polidore, but neither is brought to the fore, and neither can be proved to be bourgeois.
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All this amounts to little or nothing i but when we come to Les Precie u ses Ridicules we come upon fully developed types in whose case there is no possible chance of mistaking the social status Gorgibus is a bourgeois, and could not conceivably have been anything else. As to his daughter and niece, Madelon and Cathos, the point LSt ''c-i.
Jourdain, and which nearly every author who has occasion to use the ambitious bourgeois will find it convenient to employ. This contrast is between the two girls on the one hand, two "pecquea pro- vinciales," aping the manners of the affected ladies of quality of their time, scorning co.
These three people are not incidentally bougeois; they are essentially so, and the intrigue of the play turns on char- acteristics that are inherent in the class. Therefore they take rank as bourgeois par excellence a head of some later and more fully developed characters, whose peculiarities are not, however, those that we naturally connect with the middle class.
Tt will be some time before we meet such significant figures again. He, like the earlier Gorgibus, attributes some of Celie's unconventional ideas on marriage to the. BBtSlO sort of literature a'ne Hhb been asairailating, and ordtsrs her to a jilalner course of reading. Avarice, too, is a controlling motive with hiiu, and he is the first of the long line of fathers who are looking for prop- erty qualifications in a son-in-law, and with whom a daughter's preferences weigh as nothing against the purse of the rich suitor. Patter than Gorgibus is Sganarells of this same play, who exhibits certain traits that will later be characteristic of M.
He is as vain and as self-eatisf iedj he finds his wife unreasonable to desire anything better than his own "personne chanuantej " and he thinks that he r. So far as fatuity goes, and satisfaction with his own personal charms, this Sganarelle is repeated in the one of the sane name in L'Eco le dejs M ar is. The latter, guardian of a young girl, is sure zsiuz neither his ward nor any other girl could resist him. In this he rtisembles the later character of Arnolphe, for whom he is indeed a sort of charcoal sketch.
Ariste, his brother, is the another of those foils who are introduced the better to bring out the points to be ridiculed in the pretago- nist. In Arnolpht of L'Bcole des Pemnies we have the full-length figure for which the last Sganarelle was the study. Selfish, cyn- ical, brutal, yet credulous and gullible as a child, anourous and infatuated, he is the eternal type of old laan in love with young girl.
In this play we have, too, Chrysalde, the coramon-ssnse friend of Arnolphe, who is a develop- ,Tient of Ariste, the brother of Sganarelle of L' Bcol e des Maris. He is not so important in himself as for the soke of the contrast he affords to the selfish and unreasonable attitude of Arnolphe. Dorimene, of this sarae play, is another case of the tourgeoiae a la mode , of which we had samples in Madelon and CathOB, only where they aped the intellectual affectations of the prec ieu ses , this Dorimene patterns her clothes and general bearing on the example of ladies of quality, and has a lackey to carry her train.
Alcantor, her father, is as glad to be rid of her as Gorgi- bus was anxious to dispose of his daughter and niece. In Don Juan there is one scene between the hero and M. Diiaanche, a merchant, that is not so illustrative of the bourgeois character as of the attitude of the noble towards the tradesman. Don Juan prevents M.
Dimanche from presenting his bill by overwhelm- ing him with compliments and assurances of his regard and friend- ship i but after all li. Dimanche is rather out-talked than daziiled by the honors thrust upon him. Sganarelle and M. Guillaume of L' Amour Medecin are entirely conventional and outside of the plot, though Sganarelle is of in- terest as one of the arbitrary fathers that we will see fuuclx of in the comedy to come.
Robert, but they too are shadowy and indistinct.
In fact, there is nothing in any of these four characters except their najnes to indicate their social stratum. Coming to Tartuff e however, we have the powerful figure of Orgon, with his foil, Cleante.